Design + Layout + Prepress Terminology


   

Design glossary

Achromatic
The non-colors... black, white and gray.
Air
Large white areas in a design layout. Also called white space.
Alignment
The condition of type and or art materials as they level up on a horizontal or Alley
A term for a random, coincidental path or a row of white space within a segment of copy.
Apron
The white area of text (or illustrations) at the margins which form a foldout.
Arms
Those elements of letters that branch out from the stem of a letter, such as: "K" and "Y".
Arrowhead
A symbol shaped like an arrowhead that is used in illustration to direct a leader line. Reference, leader line
Art Work
All illustrated material, ornamentation, photos and charts etc., that is prepared for reproduction.
Ascender
Any part of a lower case letter which rises above the main body of the letter such as in "d", "b" and "h".
Background
That portion of a photograph or line art drawing that appears furthest from the eye.
Backslant
Any type that tilts to the left or backward direction; opposite of italic type.
Balloon
In an illustration, any line which encircles copy, or dialogue.
Banner
The primary headline usually spanning the entire width of a page.
Base Line
This is a term used to describe the imaginary horizontal line upon which stand capitals, lower case letters, etc.
BF
An abbreviation for boldface, used to determine where boldface copy is to be used. Reference, boldface.
Binding styles
There are soft and hard cover binding styles. Soft cover includes perfect, notch, sewn, comb, wire “O” and spiral. Hard cover includes Smythe sewn and lay flat. They all have margins to pay attention to in designing a book.
Bleed
Extra ink area that crosses trim line, used to allow for variations that occur when the reproduction is trimmed or die-cut. A book usually needs 0.125” bleed on top, bottom and outside pages for any images that stop at the edge of the page.
Blind Emboss
A design or bas relief impression that is made without using inks or metal foils.
Blind Embossing
Embossed forms that are not inked, or gold leafed.
Blurb
Online company that creates digital 4-C books.
Body
The main shank or portion of the letter character other than the ascenders and descenders.
Body Size
The point size of a particular type character.
Boiler Plate
Repetitive blocks of type that are picked up and included routinely without recreating them.
Boldface
Any type that has a heavier black stroke that makes it more conspicuous.
Bullet
A boldface square or dot used before a sentence to emphasize its importance.
Caps & Small Caps
Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type.
Createspace
Online publishing company for professionals, part of Amazon.
CMYK
The four process colors used in offset printing, cyan, magenta, yellow and black.
Colophon
A printers or publishers identifying symbol or emblem.
Composition
The assembly of characters into words, lines and paragraphs of text or body matter for reproduction by printing.
Condensed Type
A narrow, elongated type face.
Contrast
he degree of tonal separation or gradation in the range from black to white.
Copy
Refers to any typewritten material, art, photos etc., to be used for the printing process.
Crop Mark
Markings at edges of original or on guide sheet to indicate the area desired in reproduction.
Cross-over
Elements that cross page boundaries and land on two consecutive pages (usually rules).
Cyan
A shade of blue used in the four-color process; it reflects blue and green and absorbs red.Cyan is one of the 4 colors of ink used in printing, the others are Magenta, Yellow and Black. Indicated as CMYK.
Delete
An instruction given to remove an element from a layout.
Descender
A term that describes that portion of lower case letters which extends below the main body of the letter, as in "p".
Dingbat
A traditional term for picture characters such as stars, hearts, pointers, etc.
Display Type
Any type that stands out from the rest of the type on a page which attracts attention of the reader.
DPI
Dots per inch. Used in reference to the file size and resolution.
Drop Folio
Page number printed at foot of page.
Drop Shadow
A shadow image placed strategically behind an image to create the affect of the image lifting off the page.
File types for design work (digital)
You can save digital files in numerous formats, and these change with time. Some are better for use on computers, suchas JPEGS, GIFS or pdfs. Others are used with specific publishing programs, such as tiffs or psds (Photoshop files). All have slightly different protocols and advantages.
Folio or Page Number
Number of page at top or bottom either centered, flushed left or flushed right often with running headline.
Font
The characters which make up a complete typeface and size.
French spacing
Name given to the spacing after a period, when one space is used instead of two. Now it is considered standard.  
FTP
File Transfer Protocol, sites where file transfer takes place.
Gamut
Refers to colors that are within the printing spectrum, specifically that can be created within the CMYK system.
Gutter
Space between pages in the printing frame of a book, or inside margin towards the back or binding edge.
Hi-rez
High resolution images, at least 300 dpi, which are required for successful printing of photo or art images.
ICC Color Profiles
Color profiles for use in InDesign or Photoshop to allow viewers to see the color profile used by the printer. They are imported into the software and into the library of the computer. They come from the printer and are based on hte type of paper you will be printing on, and their equipment.
InDesign
Adobe computer program specifically for professional designers for books and various graphics.
Italic
Text that is used to denote emphasis by slanting the type body forward.
Jaggies
The stepped effect of bitmapped text and graphics caused when vector graphics or outlined text are not used.
Kerning
The narrowing of space between two letters so that they become closer and take up less space on the page.
Keyline
Lines that are drawn on artwork that indicate the exact placement, shape and size of elements including illustrations etc.
Layflat Binding
A type of binding that allows a soft cover book to lay flat open like a hard cover.
Layout
A rendition that shows the placement of all the elements, roughs, thumbnails etc.,before it goes to print.
Leading
Space between lines of type; the distance in points between one baseline and the next.
Logotype
A personalized type or design symbol for a company or product.
Lo-rez
Refers to image files that are below the required 300 dpi for successful printing.
Lulu
Online company that makes digital 4-C books, at very small quantities.
Margin
Imprinted space around edge of page.
Mark-up
To write up instructions, as on a dummy.
Over Saturated     
Refers to a photo or art image that has been saturated above natural or   normal colors.
Outline font
Both postscript and truetype fonts are outlilne. This feature allows the fonts to resize depending on what sort of device they are being read on.
Out of Gamut
The colors in the original photo file in RGB have not been able to be converted to similar colors in CMYK. YOu can view this in Photoshop and the unconverted colors look gray.
Page Makeup
The assemblage of all the necessary elements required to complete a page.
PDF
A file format that provides an electronic image of text or text and graphics that looks like a printed document.
Pica
Standard of measurement, 1/6 inch. 1 pica = 12 points 72 points = 1 inch
Pixilated
Refers to what happens to images or graphics that are not high enough resolution. The edges become jagged.
Point
A measurement unit equal to 1/72 of an inch. 12 points to a pica, 72 points to an inch.
PPI
Pixels per inch
Ragged Left
The term given to right-justified type that is uneven on the left.
Ragged Right
The term given to left-justified type that is uneven on the right.
Recto
The odd numbered pages (right hand side) of books.
Register Marks
Any crossmarks or other symbols used on layout to assure proper registration.
RGB
The three colors that make up the light based color scheme used in computers and cameras.
Run-Around
A term given to copy that accommodates the lines of a picture or other image or copy.
Running Head
A title at the top of a page that appears on all pages of a book or chapter of a book.
Scaling
The enlargement or reduction of an image or copy to fit a specific area.
Spot Color
Small area printed in a second color.
Spread
A film image that is larger than the original image to accommodate ink trapping. Reference, trapping
Up
A term used to describe how many similar sheets can be produced on a larger sheet; two up, four up, etc.
UV coating                                                                                                                                                                   A spot coating applied over a picture or over matt or glossy film lamination. A UV coating has its own plate, using black to show where the coating is to go.
Verso
A term given to the left-hand or even-numbered pages of a book.
Vignette
Fade to white or small decorative design or illustration. A photo or illustration etc. with a faded edge.
Widow
A single word or two left at the end of a paragraph.or two short words.


Go Back To Glossary Index